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【英国卫报精读】童婚合法化?索马里女性又一次被推入深渊(下)

【英国卫报精读】童婚合法化?索马里女性又一次被推入深渊(下)
2020年09月19日 10:50 新浪网 作者 雅思哥

  昨天我们看了ABC News就童婚的报道,报道中,我们知道联合国秘书长称索马里新法案是“是索马里乃至全球打击性暴力斗争中的一个重大挫折,”那今天我们来看《英国卫报》对此又是如何报道的呢? 

  A race against time: the new law putting Somalia's children at risk of marriage

  与时间赛跑:新法案将索马里儿童置于婚姻的危险之中

  Child marriage in the country has increased during coronavirus – and now a newly-tabled bill would allow children as young as 10 to marry

  在新冠疫情期间,索马里童婚现象有所增加。现在,一项新提交的法案允许儿童10岁结婚

  1. Fardowsa Salat Mohamed was 15 when her cousin asked her parents for her hand in marriage. Her father did not hesitate to say yes. When Mohamed objected, her father asked her to choose between “a curse and a blessing”.

  Fardowsa Salat Mohamed 15岁的时候,她的表兄向他父母提亲。她父亲毫不犹豫地答应了。Mohamed 不愿意,她让她在“被诅咒和被祝福”之间做出选择。

  2. “That was not a choice for me, I was basically forced,” she says. “No girl would ever choose to be cursed by her parents so I had to accept the marriage,”

  她说,“我不愿意,我是被迫的。没有女孩会选择被父母诅咒,所以我选择了接受这桩婚姻。”

  3. Mohamed, who is from the town of Baidoa in south-central Somalia, was at school, dreaming of becoming a doctor. She had to drop everything and become a wife. Three years later, Mohamed was divorced with two children. She is now back living at her parents’ house.

  Mohamed来自索马里中南部的拜多阿镇,当时她还在上学,梦想着成为一名医生。她不得不放弃一切,步入婚姻。三年后,Mohamed 带着两个孩子和丈夫离婚了。她现在住在父母家。

  4. According to the latest government figures, 34% of Somali girls are married before they reach 18, and 16% of them before their 15th birthday.

  根据政府的最新数据,34%的索马里女孩在18岁之前就结婚了,还有16%的女孩在15岁之前就已经结婚。

  5. While children are married off for different reasons, such as the economic benefit of a dowry, and an increase in child marriage cases has been reported during the coronavirus pandemic, early marriage is rooted in Somali culture. An old Somali saying goes: “Gabadh ama god hakaaga jirto ama gunti rag,” which loosely translates as “a girl should either be married or in a grave”.

  童婚早已根植于索马里的文化之中。而童婚的原因各不相同,有的是为了获得彩礼。在新冠疫情期间,索马里童婚案例有所增加。就如当地的一句老话说的:“Gabadh ama god hakaaga jirto ama gunti rag,”意思是:女孩要么结婚,要么死。

  6. Marriage under 18 is not illegal, although Somalia’s constitution prohibits it and the country is signed up to several international treaties promising to tackle it. In July 2014, the government signed a charter committing to end child marriage by 2020. But in August, the Somali parliament tabled a controversial bill that would allow a child to be married once they reached puberty, which can mean 10 years old. The sexual intercourse related crimes bill would also allow marriage if parents consented. The UN has called the bill “deeply flawed”.

  尽管索马里宪法禁止18岁以下结婚,而且该国还签署了几项承诺解决童婚问题的国际条约,但是,在索马里,未满18岁结婚并不违法。2014年7月,政府签署了一项宪章,承诺到2020年消除童婚。但今年8月,索马里议会提出了一项很有争议的法案,该法案允许儿童在进入青春期(可能是10岁)后结婚。与性行为相关的犯罪法案还将允许在父母同意的情况下结婚。联合国称该法案存在“严重缺陷”。

  7. The new bill has been fiercely criticised after MPs realised that it was different from a sexual offences bill unanimously adopted in 2018 by ministers but not enacted, which sought to prevent child marriage, and effectively criminalise a wide range of sexual offences.

  2018年,部长们一致通过了一项旨在防止童婚、有效将各种性犯罪定罪的性侵法案,但该法案并未实施。在议员们意识到新法案与之前的这部法案存在根本差别之后,新法案遭到了强烈的批评。

  8. Last year, the speaker of the house returned the draft bill, which has been in development since 2013, to the cabinet requesting changes. It remained dormant until two weeks ago when a new version was introduced under a new name: the sexual intercourse related crimes bill.

  去年,众议院议长将这项自2013年以来一直在制定的法案草案提交给内阁,要求修改。自此,该法案一直搁置,直到两周前,该法案的新版本改名换姓出现在大众面前,这就是“性交相关犯罪法案。”

  9. “It is completely unacceptable,” says Sahra Omar Ma’alin a member of the parliament’s human rights committee. “We have to protect the rights of our children. We have asked the deputy speaker to bring back the original bill, which we had been working on for so many years. It was such a comprehensive document that provides women the dignity and protection they deserve.”

  议会人权委员会成员Sahra Omar Ma’alin说,“这完全是不可接受的!我们必须要保护孩子的权利。我们已经要求副议长重新提出我们已经为此努力多年的原始议案,这项议案很全面,为女性提供了她们应得的尊严和保护。”

  10. Somalia’s current political instability and the forthcoming general elections makes it difficult for Ma’alin and civil society organisations to keep the pressure on for human rights.

  索马里目前政局很不稳定,而且大选在即,这使得Ma’alin和民间社会组织很难就人权问题给政府施加压力。

  11. The country is now run by a caretaker government after prime minister Hassan Ali Khaire was ousted in a vote of no-confidence in July.

  今年7月,索马里总统哈桑·阿里·海尔在不信任投票中被赶下台,目前该国由临时政府管理。

  12. “It is a race against time as the parliament’s mandate is going to end in a few months,” says Ma’alin. “The fate of our children is being politicised. Some politicians are using the bill as a campaign tool. They attempted to carry out the voting in the same manner they used to remove the former prime minister – in just a seven-minute debate – but we will never allow that to happen.”

  Ma’alin说,“这是一场与时间的赛跑,因为议会就此法案的授权讨论将在几个月后结束。孩子们的命运已经被政治化。一些政客将该法案作为竞选工具。他们想老调重弹,采用之前罢免总统的方式来进行投票,只进行7分钟的辩论,但是我们绝不允许这种事情发生。”

  13. In 2015, Somalia ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which the UN applauded as a significant achievement for the country’s 6.5 million children.

  2015年,索马里批准了《儿童权利公约》,联合国称赞此举是索马里就其650万儿童来取得的一项重大成就。

  14. “It is a shocking development, given that 2015 was a watershed moment for Somalia,” says Brendan Ross, chief of child protection at Unicef Somalia.

  联合国儿童基金会索马里儿童保护负责人布伦丹·罗斯说,“2015年是索马里的转折之年,这是一项重大发展。”

  15. “UNICEF has been supporting the Somali government in domesticating that convention. To see a piece of drafted legislation which allows for the marriage of young girls once they are ‘sexually capable’ is astonishing in 2020. We are certainly opposed to that and the UN is unified on that.”

  “儿童基金会一直努力帮助索马里政府在国内推行该《公约》。到2020年,还看到有法案允许'能够进行性行为'的年轻女孩结婚,这太荒谬了。我们当然会反对这样做,联合国在这个问题上和我们是一致的。”

  16. It took Mohamed five months to convince her parents to allow her to get divorced. Her former husband was addicted to chewing khat, the stimulant leaf common in east Africa.

  Mohamed 花了5个月的时间才说服她的父母允许她离婚。她的前夫对阿拉伯茶上瘾,这是东非常见的一种兴奋剂。

  17. “He would spend the little money he gets on khat instead of buying milk for our hungry children,” she says. “He took advantage of the support he had from my family. But I was relentless and kept on demanding until I was finally relieved.”

  她说:“他把仅有的一点钱都用来买阿拉伯茶叶了,从来不会给我们那快要饿昏了的孩子买牛奶。他利用了我家人对他的支持,但是我一直坚持离婚,直到最后我终于成功了。”

  18. Although her parents welcomed her home, Mohamed has to support her children. Her father can only do so much, as he is already struggling to put food on the table for his other 10 children and two wives.

  虽然她父母让她回家住,但是Mohamed 必须得自己养活她的两个孩子。她父亲只能帮她这么多了,因为他自己还有10个孩子2个老婆要养。

  19. Mohamed now ekes out a living selling tea on the street, putting up with the stigma associated with being a single mother. “My priorities in life have changed. My main mission now is to build a better future for my kids so that they never experience what I went through.”

  Mohamed 现在靠在街上卖茶为生,忍受着单身母亲的耻辱。“我生活的重心变了。我现在的主要任务就是为我的孩子们创造一个更好的未来,这样他们就不会经历我所经历的一切。”

  精读解析

篇章结构

  P1—P3:Mohamed的例子引入:Mohamed15岁的时候就被迫结婚,最后离婚了。

  P4—P5:索马里普遍存在童婚。

  P6—P8:索马里就童婚曾作出的努力:起草性犯罪相关法律,但是该法律被允许童婚的新法规取代了。

  P9—P15:索马里各方对坚决发对新法规,主要以议会人权委员会成员Sahra Omar Ma’alin为例。

  P16—P19:呼应开头:早早结婚的Mohamed终于离婚之后自己带着孩子生活,一心想要孩子不要再经历她所经历的一切苦难。

重点单词

  marryoff 把…嫁出去;让儿子结婚

  【例句】

   These young women have been married off to our fighters.

  他说这些年轻的女孩已经嫁给了我们的武装士兵。

  dowry/'daʊ(ə)rɪ/ n. 嫁妆;天资;亡夫遗产

  【例句】

  His family hoped that his bride would bring a large dowry.

  他的家人希望新娘能带来丰厚的嫁妆。

  table /'teɪb(ə)l/ n. 桌子;表格;平地层vt. 嵌合;制表;(正式)提出,把…列入议事日程;(将主意、建议等)搁置adj. 桌子的

  【短语】

  to table a proposal 提出建议

  off the table 不予讨论;离开台面

  round table 圆桌会议,协商会议

  at the table 吃饭时;在谈判中

  on the table 在桌面上;公开地

  under the table 酒醉;秘密地

  turn the tables (on sb) 扭转形势;转变局面;转弱为强

  drink sb under the table(拼酒量)喝倒某人;喝到使某人醉倒

  lay/put your cards on the table摊牌;(把计划或打算等)和盘托出

  【例句】

  They have tabled a motion for debate at the next Party Conference.

  他们已经提出一项动议,在下次党的会议上进行辩论。

  controversial/kɒntrə'vɜːʃ(ə)l/ adj. 有争议的, 引起争议的

  【例句】

  Any public or semipublic expression of racism is controversial.

  任何公开的或半公开的种族主义的措词都会引起争论。

  intercourse/'ɪntəkɔːs/ n. 交流, 交往, 交际

  【例句】

  A friendly intercourse is opened between the most remote parts of the world.

  相距极远的两国开始了一种亲睦的邦交。

  unanimously/jʊˈnænəməslɪ/ adv. 无异议地;全体一致地

  unanimous adj. 全体一致的;意见一致的;无异议的

  【短语】

  unanimous approval 一致通过

  unanimous vote 全票通过或拥护

  unanimous decision 一致决定

  【例句】

  Following discussion, the annual report was accepted unanimously.

  经过讨论,年度报告获一致通过。

  criminalise/'krɪmɪn(ə)laɪz/ vt. 宣布…犯法;使负刑事责任

  【例句】

  The plan also would criminalize companies selling consumers' data overseas.

  该计划还会将那些出售消费者数据到海外的公司定罪。

  dormant /'dɔːm(ə)nt/ adj. 潜伏的,蛰服的,休眠的

  【短语】

  dormant volcano 休眠火山;睡火山,休火山

  dormant period 潜伏期,垫伏期

  【例句】

  Many living things are dormant in winter.

  很多生物到了冬季都休眠。

  instability/ɪnstə'bɪlɪtɪ/ n. 不稳定,不稳固

  【例句】

  Racism causes political instability and violence.

  种族主义道致政治动荡和暴力事件。

  forthcoming/fɔːθ'kʌmɪŋ/ adj. 即将到来的;现成的, 唾手可得的

  【例句】

  Her letter may purport her forthcoming arrival.

  她的来信可能意味着她快要到了。

  caretaker government n. 看守政府;过渡时期的政府

  【例句】

  She'll lead a caretaker government until the country's political parties can agree on forming a coalition.

  她将领导临时政府,直到该国各政党同意组建联合政府。

  oust /aʊst/ vt. 剥夺;驱逐;取代

  【短语】

  oust from 驱逐

  oust of 剥夺

  【例句】

  He may be ousted by a military takeover.

  他可能在一场军事接管中被赶下台。

  a vote of no-confidence不信任票

  【例句】

  In Iceland, some members of Parliament Monday demanded a vote of no confidence for the prime minister.

  在冰岛,周一国会的一些成员要求对总理的不信任投票。

  mandate/'mændeɪt/ n. (选民对选出的代表、议会等的)授权;(上级官员对下级官员下达的)正式命令vt. 将(某地)委托某国管理;授权(某人)根据委托统治权(做某事)

  【短语】

  mandated benefit 强制性福利

  general mandate 全面委托

  bank mandate 银行委托书

  constitutional mandate 宪法训令

  legislation mandate 立法委任权

  【例句】

  He was unrelenting in his pursuit of legal mandate.

  他坚决要求得到合法的托管权。

  ratify /'rætɪfaɪ/ vt. 批准;认可

  【同根】

  ratification n. 批准;承认,认可

  【短语】

  ratification process 批准过程

  instrument of ratification 批准书

  【例句】

  The heads of the two government ratified the treaty.

  两国政府首脑签署了条约。

  watershed /'wɔːtəʃed/ n. 分水岭; 分水线;转折点

  【例句】

  Our marriage was at a watershed.

  我们的婚姻到了一个转折关头。

  domesticate /də'mestɪkeɪt/ vt. 驯养;教化;引进; vi. 驯养;使习惯于或喜爱家务和家庭生活;

  【例句】

  Dogs were the first domesticated animal of any kind.

  犬类是最先被人类驯服的动物。

  addicted to沉迷于

  【例句】

  They're obsessed with it, addicted to it.

  沉溺于之 成瘾于之。

  She became addicted to the drug.

  她上了毒瘾。

  khat/kɑːt/ n. 阿拉伯茶(产于非洲和阿拉伯)

  【例句】

  But shoppers seem more interested in khat, a mild narcotic popular with Ethiopians, Somalis and Yemenis.

  但消费者似乎对阿拉伯茶—在俄塞俄比亚人、索马里人和也门人群中颇受欢迎的一种轻度镇定剂。

  stimulant /'stɪmjʊl(ə)nt/ n. 兴奋剂;刺激物;酒精饮料adj. 激励的;使人兴奋的

  【例句】

  Musk is used for perfume and stimulant.

  麝香可以用作香料和兴奋剂。

  relentless /rɪ'lentlɪs/ adj. 残酷的, 不留情的, 无怜悯心的

  【例句】

  The African sun beat relentlessly down on his aching head.

  非洲的太阳无情地照射在他那发痛的头上。

  eke out v. 竭力维持;弥补…的不足

  【例句】

  She eked out the stew to make another meal.

  她省出一些钝菜再做一顿饭。

  put up with v. 忍受;容忍

  put up with sb 忍受某人

  【例句】

  He had to put up with a smart rebuke from the teacher.

  他不得不忍受老师的严厉指责。

  stigma/'stɪgmə/ n. 污名;耻辱;柱头;烙印;特征

  【例句】

  It's a stigma to ask for money.

  要钱是一种耻辱。

  priority /praɪ'ɒrɪtɪ/ n. 优先;优先权;优先次序;优先考虑的事

  【短语】

  give priority to 优先考虑;认为优先

  top priority 最优先的

  first priority 最优先;绝对优先权

  【例句】

  Debenture holder has priority over ordinary shareholder.

  债券持有人比普通股东享有优先权。

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