非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事

非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事
2020年02月17日 00:00 新浪网 作者 安徽画报社
非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事

一张纸的故事

A Story of Xuan Paper

宣纸是中国书画的绝配,中国书画的许多笔墨意趣,正是有了宣纸,才有了丰富的呈现。

一张张宣纸,不仅仅是自然的恩赐,更是这些匠人用一生岁月和辛劳缔造的心血之作。

Xuan Paper, a perfect fit to Chinese ink and brushes, gives full expression to the charm of Chinese paintings and calligraphy. It is a gift from the nature, as well as the painstaking work created by craftsmen.

2008年,北京奥运会的开幕式上,张艺谋讲述的中国故事,是从一张纸开始的。

这张纸,就是宣纸。

关于宣纸的诞生,有一个流传很久的故事。相传,东汉建光元年(公元121年),蔡伦服毒自杀后,他的弟子孔丹想造出一种洁白而能持久的纸张,来绘制蔡伦的画像。一日经过宣州,看见一棵青檀树倒卧溪流中,流水冲刷下,露出缕缕长而白的纤维。他从中得到启发,于是选用青檀树皮为原材料,经过反复试验,终于造出他理想中的一张纸。这张纸就是宣纸的前身。

非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事

剥好了的青檀树皮成排晾晒

Peeled green ebony (pteroceltis) barks are placed in rows for drying

唐代,宣纸在达官贵族和文人雅士中流行。五代时南唐后主李煜曾设立专门机构来督造宣纸,并把精品贮藏于“澄心堂”,这就是文献记载的“澄心堂纸”。当时人们这样描述它:“肤如卵膜,坚洁如玉,细薄光润。”

澄心堂纸的制作技艺,如今已经失传了。而我们今天看到的宣纸制作技艺,起源于元。 

1278年,陕西灵宝县的曹大三一族为逃避战乱,几经辗转迁徙到今安徽泾县小岭。他组织族人在小岭建立造纸生产基地,经过几代人的努力,终于在元末明初创造出稻草制浆与青檀、皮浆、草浆掺和,按一定量配比的制纸法。这就是我们现在所常见常用的宣纸。由此小岭曹氏被冠以“宣纸世家”,小岭被誉为“中国宣纸的发祥地”。700余年间,制造宣纸的核心技艺一直在小岭曹氏一族世代传承。直到清代后期宣纸生产才向小岭以外扩展,并有外姓人介入。出现了如朱同太、汪六吉、汪惠通(同和)等外姓业主。

非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事

清晨,工人们挑着蒸煮过的沙田稻草上滩

In the morning, workers carry the cooked Shatian straw to the beach

有人对宣纸与中国书画之间的关系作了这样概括:它具有薄、密、光、细、绵、韧、轻、软、洁、白的特点,薄、密利于润墨,能呈现笔墨层次;光、细利于运笔,能挥洒自如;绵、韧利于笔墨皴擦和揭裱,能搓拖不破;轻、软利于加工卷折,能揉叠不损;洁、白利于呈现墨彩,能经久不变。

宣纸是中国书画的绝配,中国书画的许多笔墨意趣,正是有了宣纸,才有了丰富的呈现。

泾县西南方的小岭一带,特殊的喀斯特山地适合青檀树的生长,冲积平原则适宜生产长杆的沙田稻,而青檀树和沙田稻草,是宣纸制造最主要的两种原料。

非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事

抽纸师傅需要使用特制的竹鞭

Paper-drawing craftsman needs to use a special bamboo whip

The opening ceremony of 2008 Beijing Olympics, directed by Zhang Yimou,was started from a piece of paper.

That was Xuan paper.

In 1278, in order to flee from the war, the family of Cao Dasan in Lingbao county of Shaanxi province moved to Xiaoling village, Jingxian county, Anhui province. Thanks to the efforts of several generations, in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties, Cao’s family finally created a unique paper-making process which blends straw pulp with green ebony (pteroceltis) and leather pulp. This is how Xuan paper that we commonly use today is made. It provides the best carrier to present Chinese paintings and calligraphy.

非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事

碓皮时的声音很大,工人师傅要不断地翻动手中的燎草

There are loud noises when hammering leather. The worker must constantly turn the fi re straw in his hand

更神奇的是泾县的水。泾县境内有多条河流,而乌溪上游的两条支流,一条属淡碱性,适合宣纸原料加工;一条属淡酸性,适合成纸用水。

非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事

捞纸最讲究节奏的把握,工人们相互之间的配合非常重要

Great attention should be paid to the pace when taking out the paper from the pulp. In this process, the cooperation among workers is of vital importance

宣纸的制作工序大致可分为十八道,如果细分,则可超过百道。宣纸制作的所有工序里,自然漂白这一道工序最具视觉震撼性:经过蒸煮的原料,被挑料工一担担运到喀斯特山地的石滩和朝阳的山坡上,漫山遍野地铺。经过一年四季的日晒雨淋和风刀霜剑,完成其自然漂白的过程。历经沧桑,才能达到柔韧无比。所谓纸寿千年,也是历劫而成。

非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事

捞纸师傅周东红每天要和搭档捞一千多张纸

Master Zhou Donghong and his partners need to take out one thousand pieces of paper from the pulp every day

宣纸成纸的第一道程序“捞纸”,技术性和观赏性兼备:两人或多人配合抬帘,在纸浆池里左右一摆,捞起成型。然后反腕一扣,湿漉漉的宣纸就脱离竹帘码得整整齐齐。动作轻灵准确,眼到、心到、手到,行云流水,一气呵成。但极具观赏性画面的背后,是捞纸工湿漉漉泡脱皮的手。相比较捞纸的工匠,晒纸工则是另一种煎熬:天天在烘房里烤着,寒冬腊月,也是汗流浃背,更不用说三伏天里的火烧火燎。

一张张宣纸,不仅仅是自然的恩赐,更是这些匠人用一生岁月和辛劳缔造的心血之作。

非遗文创 | 宣纸:一张纸的故事

工人们正在制作世界最大的宣纸“三丈三”

The workers are making the largest Xuan paper called “San Zhang San”

The two main raw materials of Xuan Paper are green ebony (pteroceltis) and Shatian straw, both of which are unique to Xiaoling area, southwest of Jingxian county.

The water in Jingxian county is even more magical. Among the numerous rivers there, the two tributaries of Wuxi River’s upstream are perfect for papermaking—one is light alkaline, which is suitable for the raw material processing; the other is mildly acidic, which is fit for finished paper.

The production process of Xuan Paper can be roughly divided into eighteen steps. If subdivided in more details, it exceeds one hundred steps. These sophisticated steps ensure Xuan paper’s long-lasting quality.

Every piece of Xuan paper is not only the gift of nature, but also the masterpiece of craftsmen who devoted their whole lives to papermaking.

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