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精致老物象牙杆秤

精致老物象牙杆秤
2021年04月10日 14:05 新浪网 作者 四川国雅臻

  称杆是中国古代一直沿用至今的一种测量工具,测量物品的重量,有秤钩、秤杆、秤星和秤砣组成,目前在农村仍然还是很通行,小到几克,大到几十公斤都可以称量。

  此秤杆采用天然象牙精制而成,整体小巧玲珑,精致美观,既是一杆计量器,又是一件工艺品,让人爱不释手。戥子秤杆有骨质、象牙、虬角、乌木等,最好的是象牙杆,此戥子则为象牙材质,属于小型的杆秤,是旧时专门用来称量金、银、贵重药品和香料的精密衡器。因其用料考究,做工精细,技艺独特,也被当做一种品位非常高的收藏品。此秤放置在一个精美花梨木盒子里,盒内挖凿一个秤杆长短、秤盘大小,能放置杆秤和砣盘的凹槽,盒子的形状为琵琶型。制作一个象牙秤杆要经过十几道工序,特别是有的要在直径几毫米的秤杆上完成打眼、钻孔、穿纽等工序,其做工之难、之精、之细,令人惊叹,如此精作,即便是娴熟钻工师傅都未必能得心应手!我们在感受古人智慧和才能的同时,还能体会到一种精神文化的享受,虽然它只是当时的一种实用工具,但它来源于旧时的生产生活。

  

  旧时,富户商贾出门,大多身携戥秤,用以交易,所谓“家有万贯,外有戥子”。戥秤是衡量金贵之物,一星半点的受潮、锈蚀、尘灰都会影响其精确度,于是人们为它量身定制外盒,妥帖安放。

  

  除衡量金银之外,戥秤亦用作称量药材细料、香料、剧毒之物。因为“丝毫计较”,戥秤亦成为商贾富家的代名词。精密戥秤的问世,在无意间促进了中医的跃进,它使得药材计量更趋精准,故而古有言之“中医不传之秘在于量”。使用戥秤控制药物计量之法,在中国沿用千年,直至今日,若用一柄完好无损的戥秤称量细小物件,其读数与现代天平秤丝毫无异。

  

  中国度量衡,始之秦皇,历代修之,完备精密。纤小的戥秤,从北宋至民国,通行无碍,成为衡量细致微物的不二之器。上世纪五十年代,新中国颁布全新计量单位,由十六两进制改为十两进制,“两”以下的钱、分、厘,则一并改由“克”计量。旧时衡器、方寸戥秤,由此尘封,由此可见戥子秤的历史文化价值非常高!

  近年来,随着人们生活水平的不断提高,社会上掀起了一股文物收藏热,且收藏的品种、范围也越来越广,象牙秤也在其中,它以其珍贵的材质,复杂而又讲究的制作工艺,独特的造型,受到了广大收藏者的喜爱。在众多的文物交易会上,象牙秤都是以极高的价格售出,

  此 “象牙秤”保存完好,秤杆象牙制作,较为难得,它不仅表现了我国历代手工艺人的精湛技艺,更体现了古人的智慧,是中华民族的宝贵遗产!也是在古玩届具有收藏的价值。

  Weighing pole is a kind of measuring tool which has been used in ancient China until now. It is composed of scale hook, scale pole, scale star and scale weight. At present, it is still very popular in rural areas, ranging from a few grams to dozens of kilograms.

  This scale is made of natural ivory. It is small and exquisite. It is not only a measuring instrument, but also a handicraft. People can't put it down. There are bone, ivory, Qiu Jiao, ebony, etc. the best one is ivory rod. This scale is made of ivory. It is a small scale. It was used to weigh gold, silver, precious drugs and spices. Because of its exquisite materials, fine workmanship and unique skills, it is also regarded as a very high-grade collection. The scale is placed in an exquisite rosewood box. The length of a scale rod and the size of a scale plate are dug in the box. The groove of the scale rod and the scale plate can be placed. The shape of the box is pipa. To make an ivory scale needs more than ten working procedures, especially some of them need to complete drilling, drilling and button piercing on the scale with a diameter of a few millimeters. The difficulty, precision and fineness of the work are amazing. Even a skilled driller may not be able to cope with such fine work! Although it was only a practical tool at that time, it came from the production and life of the old times.

  In the old days, when the rich merchants went out, most of them carried scales with them for trading. The so-called "there are thousands of houses at home, but there are branches outside.". The scale is to measure the value of things, a little bit of moisture, rust, dust will affect its accuracy, so people tailor the box for it, properly placed.

  In addition to measuring gold and silver, the scale is also used to weigh fine materials of medicinal materials, spices and highly toxic substances. Because of "the slightest care", the scale has become synonymous with the rich merchants. The advent of precision scale has inadvertently promoted the leap forward of traditional Chinese medicine, which makes the measurement of medicinal materials more accurate. Therefore, it is said that "the secret of traditional Chinese medicine is quantity". The method of using a scale to control drug measurement has been used in China for thousands of years. Up to now, if you use a intact scale to weigh small objects, its reading is the same as that of a modern scale.

  Chinese weights and measures, the beginning of the Qin emperor, the past repair, complete precision. From the Northern Song Dynasty to the Republic of China, the slender weighing scale had been widely used and became the only tool to measure the details. In the 1950s, the people's Republic of China promulgated a new unit of measurement, which was changed from the hexadecimal system to the decimal system, and the measurement of money, cents and percentages below "two" was changed from "gram" at the same time. The old weighing apparatus and square inch weighing apparatus are so dusty that it can be seen that the historical and cultural value of the weighing apparatus is very high!

  In recent years, with the continuous improvement of people's living standards, there has been a wave of cultural relics collection fever in the society, and the variety and scope of collection are also more and more wide. Ivory scale is also one of them. It is loved by the majority of collectors for its precious material, complex and exquisite production technology, and unique shape. In many cultural relics fairs, ivory scales are sold at extremely high prices,

  This "ivory scale" is well preserved. It is rare to make ivory. It not only shows the exquisite skills of Chinese craftsmen, but also reflects the wisdom of the ancients. It is a precious heritage of the Chinese nation! It is also valuable in the collection of antiques.

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