新浪新闻客户端

乾隆黄底珐琅彩龙纹赏瓶

乾隆黄底珐琅彩龙纹赏瓶
2021年05月04日 10:35 新浪网 作者 四川国雅臻

  珐琅彩起始于康熙后期,顶盛时为雍正期至乾隆期。但雍正期的珐琅彩水平最高, 工艺最美。乾隆时期慢慢转向粉彩,故珐琅彩终止于乾隆后期,同时还有一部分瓷器其釉料有珐琅釉和粉彩共存。这是过渡时期的珐琅彩器,你说它是珐琅彩吗,它有粉彩,你说它是粉彩吗,它又有珐琅釉,但瓷艺水平都很高。

  

  珐琅彩,瓷器装饰手法之一,源于画珐琅技法。使用珐琅彩装饰手法的瓷器也常简称为珐琅彩。始创于清代康熙晚期。至雍正时,珐琅彩得到进一步发展。珐琅彩吸取了铜胎画珐琅的技法,在瓷质的胎上,用各种珐琅彩料描绘而成的一种新的釉上彩瓷,亦称“瓷胎画珐琅”。雍容华贵的珐琅彩问世,虽与“康熙盛世”有关,但与雍正的关系更为重要。雍正登基后,对社会进行了一番改革,大大提高了景德镇制瓷艺人的社会地位。而且雍正酷爱精美绝伦的瓷器,经常对宫廷瓷器加以评价,亲自过问,并派得力的官员去管理瓷业生产。康熙、雍正年制作珐琅彩时,先在景德镇官窑中选出最好的原料烧制成素胎送至宫廷,由宫廷画师加彩后在宫中第二次入低温炉烘烤而成。

  

  国外传入的一种装饰技法,后人称“古月轩”,国外称“蔷薇彩”。是专为清代宫廷御用而特制的一种精细彩绘瓷器,部分产品也用于犒赏功臣。据清宫造办处的文献档案记载,其为康熙帝授意之下,由造办处珐琅作的匠师将铜胎画珐琅之技法成功地移植到瓷胎上而创制的新瓷器品种。珐琅彩盛于雍正、乾隆时,属宫廷垄断的工艺珍品。所需白瓷胎由景德镇御窑厂特制,解运至京后,在清宫造办处彩绘、彩烧。所需图式由造办处如意馆拟稿,经皇帝钦定,由宫廷画家依样画到瓷器上。珐琅彩瓷创烧于康熙晚期,雍正、乾隆时盛行。清代后期仍有少量烧制,但烧造场所已不在清宫中而移至景德镇。初期珐琅彩是在胎体未上釉处先作地色,后画花卉,有花无鸟是一特征。康熙朝珐琅彩瓷器多以蓝、黄、紫红、松石绿等色为地,以各色珐琅料描绘各种花卉纹,其色彩、绘画、款式皆同于当时的铜胎画珐琅器。康熙时期(康熙画珐琅介绍),珐琅彩才传入中国,俗称洋色,所制瓷器大多为盘、碗、杯、壶等小件器物,且多为色地,即在素胎上以红、黄、蓝、绿等色釉作地,然后彩绘花卉图案。

  

  Enamel began in the late Kangxi period, and its peak was from Yongzheng period to Qianlong period. But the level of enamel in Yongzheng period is the highest, and the craft is the most beautiful. During the Qianlong period, the porcelain gradually turned to pastel, so the enamel color ended in the late Qianlong period. At the same time, there were some porcelain with enamel and pastel coexisting. This is the enamel ware of the transitional period. Do you think it is enamel? Do you think it has pastel? Do you think it is pastel? Do you think it has enamel? But the level of porcelain art is very high.

  Enamel color, one of the decorative techniques of porcelain, originated from the technique of painting enamel. Porcelain decorated with enamel is often referred to as enamel. It was founded in the late Kangxi period of Qing Dynasty. In Yongzheng period, enamel was further developed. Enamel painting is a new kind of overglaze colored porcelain, also known as "enamel painting on porcelain body", which is based on the technique of painting enamel on copper body. Although the appearance of elegant enamel was related to the prosperous Kangxi period, the relationship with Yongzheng was more important. After Yongzheng ascended the throne, he reformed the society and greatly improved the social status of Jingdezhen porcelain makers. Moreover, Yongzheng was very fond of exquisite porcelain. He often evaluated the court porcelain and personally asked about it. He also sent competent officials to manage the porcelain production. In Kangxi and Yongzheng years, the best raw materials were first selected from Jingdezhen official kilns to be fired and sent to the palace. Then the palace painters added the color and baked it in the low temperature furnace for the second time.

  A kind of decoration technique introduced from abroad is called "guyuexuan" by later generations and "rose color" by foreign countries. It is a kind of fine painted porcelain specially made for the imperial court of the Qing Dynasty. Some of the products are also used to reward meritorious officials. According to the records of the Qing Dynasty palace building office, it was a new type of porcelain created by the enamel craftsman of the building office who successfully transplanted the technique of painting enamel on the copper body to the porcelain body under the instruction of Emperor Kangxi. Enamel flourished in Yongzheng and Qianlong periods, and it was a kind of treasure monopolized by the court. The white porcelain body was specially made by Jingdezhen imperial kiln. After it was transported to Beijing, it was painted and burned in the Qing palace building office. The required schemata were drafted by Ruyi Hall of the manufacturing office, and determined by the emperor. Enamel colored porcelain was created and burned in the late Kangxi period, and prevailed in Yongzheng and Qianlong periods. In the late Qing Dynasty, there was still a small amount of firing, but the firing place was moved to Jingdezhen instead of the palace. In the early stage of enamel painting, the ground color was first painted at the unglazed part of the carcass, and then flowers were painted. In the Kangxi Dynasty, most of the enamel porcelains were blue, yellow, purplish red, turquoise green and so on. They used various colors of enamel to depict various flower patterns. Their colors, paintings and styles were all the same as those of copper body painting enamel ware at that time. During the Kangxi period (the introduction of Kangxi painting enamel), the enamel color was introduced to China, commonly known as foreign color. Most of the porcelain made were small utensils such as plates, bowls, cups and pots, and most of them were colored ground, that is, the ground was made of red, yellow, blue and green glaze on the plain, and then the flower patterns were painted.

特别声明:以上文章内容仅代表作者本人观点,不代表新浪网观点或立场。如有关于作品内容、版权或其它问题请于作品发表后的30日内与新浪网联系。
权利保护声明页/Notice to Right Holders 我要反馈
新浪新闻意见反馈留言板 400-052-0066 欢迎批评指正

违法和不良信息举报电话:4000520066
举报邮箱:jubao@vip.sina.com

Copyright © 1996-2021 SINA Corporation

All Rights Reserved 新浪公司 版权所有